特朗普再提组建“航天军”

美国总统唐纳德·特朗普18日下令国防部组建独立于空军之外的第六军种“航天军”,确保美国在太空拥有“优势”,而非仅仅“存在”。

特朗普还鼓励美国私营企业抢在美国国家航空航天局之前送人上火星。

【统治太空】

美联社报道,特朗普此前多次提及组建“航天军”,但这次似乎把想法“推进了一步”,下令五角大楼启动建军进程。

美国现有五大军种分别是陆军、空军、海军、海军陆战队和海岸警卫队。特朗普当天在白宫会晤美国国家航天委员会成员时说:“说到保卫美国,仅仅让美国存在于太空还不够。我们必须让美国在太空拥有优势。”

特朗普说,“航天军”将独立于空军之外,两支部队“独立而平等”。他还点名美军参谋长联席会议主席约瑟夫·邓福德,授意邓福德“完成这项任务”。邓福德似乎接受了指派,回应说:“我们明白。”

美国五角大楼发言人达娜·怀特之后发表声明说,理解总统指令,正着手准备,同时会考虑这一举措对其他部门情报工作的影响。她说,国防部正与国会合作,这一过程需要仔细商议、“多个利益相关方大量投入”。

路透社报道,美国是1967年《外层空间条约》的缔约方之一。条约禁止在太空部署大规模杀伤性武器,只允许和平利用月球等天体。

特朗普一直将太空纳入美国国家安全范畴。他去年6月30日下令恢复美国国家航天委员会,由副总统迈克·彭斯担任委员会主席,成员包括国务卿、国防部长、商务部长、与太空有关联的政府机构负责人和航天局局长等政府官员。

【权限遭疑】

美国现有关联太空的大部分军事活动由空军管辖。美国航天局和美国国家侦察局等联邦机构负责部分太空项目。

按路透社的说法,一些美国军方高级官员曾对组建“航天军”提出批评,认为可能会损害美国空军。

美国空军参谋长戴维·戈德费恩2017年出席一次国会听证会时说,创建新的太空军事力量将“让我们走向错误方向”。

民主党籍国会参议员比尔·纳尔逊也在“推特”上说:“幸好总统没有国会做不成(组建新军),因为现在可不是拆分空军的时候。太多利害攸关的任务了。”

按美联社的说法,特朗普在组建新军方面权力有限,因为这基本属国会权限。美国国会须首先批准组建新军,且国会负责为其拨款。

美国国会众议院军事委员会委员、民主党人亚当·史密斯告诉法新社,“任何这类改变须经过国会立法”,特朗普“应与我们讨论想法”。

美联社报道,五角大楼正应国会要求对组建“航天军”作评估。评估今年3月开始,国防部定于8月提交中期报告,12月底前提交最终报告。国防部3月告知国会,将评估“是否应施行‘航天军’概念”。

此外,一名国会高级助理披露,部分国会议员过去两年一直在为美国太空作战争取更多资源。

【鼓励私企】

除了“航天军”,特朗普曾多次提及美国人重返月球、探寻火星的计划。法新社报道,他为此放松了对太空商业探索的限制,甚至提议2025年后将国际空间站私有化。

美国航天局正研发巨型火箭“太空发射系统”,为载人航天器登陆月球和火星作准备。

特朗普18日说,欢迎太空探索技术公司和蓝色起源公司等美国富豪创办的企业“打败”美国航天局。“放手干吧,如果你们能在登陆火星一事上打败我们,我们会非常高兴。”

特朗普同时强调,这些企业老板必须是“美国有钱人”。

特朗普当天签署两项总统令,将监管商业卫星等权力从五角大楼转交给商务部;同时加强公共和私营部门对在轨物体的监测,以防这类物体相撞和碎片撞击。

344 thoughts on “特朗普再提组建“航天军””

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