NASA局长公布再次登月计划 利用轨道飞船探索太空

据英国《每日邮报》8月24日报道,美国航空航天局(NASA)局长吉姆布里登斯廷透露了他对人类在月球长期定居的希望。本周在休斯敦约翰逊航天中心与记者举行的会议上,他详细阐述了建造“Gateway”航天器的计划,这些航天器将环绕月球运行,最终缩小太空探索的差距。
“Gateway”飞船最初将支持大约30-60天的简短科学任务,这将是详细探索月球的关键。布里登斯廷说:“我们想要更多人类进入太空。第一个Gateway是关于月球的,但我认为第二个Gateway,作为一个深空运输器,加上更高效的商业和国际合作伙伴,使我们能去月球上更多未探索之地,还使我们能够到达火星。”
NASA之前的人类月球探索计划阿波罗17号任务于1972年结束。去年12月,美国总统特朗普宣布了让宇航员重返月球的目标,目的是为最终的火星任务奠定基础。从10月1日开始,特朗普政府为NASA提供了199亿美元的预算提案,其中包括用于人类太空探索的105亿美元。该预算支持美国宇航局新的太空发射系统火箭和“猎户座”飞船的开发,该飞船旨在将宇航员送入太空。作为预算提案的一部分,NASA还计划在本世纪20年代建造月球轨道平台——Gateway,它是月球轨道上的空间站。NASA表示,其最初的组成部分——动力和推进装置,将于2022年发射。
布里登斯廷对路透社说,要让下一代月球探索成为一个“可持续发展的行业”。所以我们希望从地球轨道到月球轨道的拖船是可重复使用的。此外我们还希望可以在与月球附近建立一个空间站以及可以在该空间站和月球表面往返的着陆器。
本周早些时候,布里登斯廷概述了人类对月球的重新探索和“可持续”的探索,并指出月球表面存在水是成功的关键。周一,NASA公布了一项来自印度的航天器对月球轨道收集的数据的分析。这一研究结果标志着科学家首次通过直接观察证实月球表面存在水——在极地地区最黑暗、最寒冷的地区沉积了成百上千块水冰。大多数新确认的水冰都集中在两极陨石坑的阴影中,那里的温度永远不会超过250华氏度。这一发现对人类在半个世纪以来再次重返月球有着很大的诱惑。水是一种潜在的宝贵资源,不仅可以用于饮用,还可以用于产生更多的火箭燃料和供呼吸的氧气。谈到“数千亿吨”的水冰,布里登斯廷说,这些冰现在已知存在于月球表面。但仍有许多有待研究的地方。NASA月球科学家萨拉诺德说,目前还不知道月球上到底有多少冰,以及提取足够数量的可用水难易程度如何。

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