“量子黑客”来袭,现实环境中的量子通信还安全吗?我国量子战队正在反黑客路上

量子保密通信绝对安全吗?在墨子沙龙上,量子保密通信BB84协议发明者之一、加拿大蒙特利尔大学教授吉勒斯·布拉萨德(Gilles Brassard)指出,尽管量子保密通信在理论上具有绝对安全性,但量子黑客技术的发展使得现实环境中的量子通信系统不一定无条件安全,未来量子密码术与量子黑客技术之间仍将开展一场“猫捉老鼠”般的竞争游戏。

从火漆封缄到拆字文、藏头诗,几千年来人类为了保密绞尽脑汁,密码加密和密码破解究竟是“魔高一尺”还是“道高一丈”?为了实现不可破解的加密,找到一种不可被“第三者”窃取的、只能为信息接收者所解读的信息加密方式成为密码通信领域的一座“圣杯”。

布拉萨德表示,随着量子时代的到来,量子密码术被认为已夺得了这一“圣杯”。“量子密码术使用0和1的多个叠加态存储数据,由于在测量时量子叠加态或纠缠态的波函数会发生坍缩,任何窃听者试图测量与复制初始信息时,都会使信息失真或劣化,从而可以通过错误率分析攻击者的存在。所以量子保密通信体系被认为是最安全的通信体系。”布拉萨德说,但量子黑客技术的发展又使这一切扑朔迷离。

▲布拉萨德在“墨子沙龙”讲述传统通信过程。

据悉,尽管量子密码在理论上是无条件安全的,但在现实中,量子密码通信系统所使用的器件并不完美,使得量子黑客有机可乘。他们可以利用器件的不完美性,引入漏洞,从而设计出攻击方法,窃取密钥。此前已有加拿大的科研人员针对现实的量子通信系统中的单光子探测器进行强光致盲攻击,控制探测系统,使量子通信系统产生其可预知的密钥。

同时,反量子黑客技术也在进步。加拿大科学家们提出了测量器件无关量子密钥分发方案,这一方案可以从理论上避免所有针对探测漏洞的攻击。基于这一方案,我国在实验研究上已领先一步。2013年,中国科大在国际上最早实现了测量器件无关量子密钥分发的实验验证;2016年,由中国科大潘建伟院士及其同事张强、陈腾云,与清华大学王向斌及中科院上海微系统所、济南量子技术研究院等单位科研人员合作,首次实现超过400公里抵御量子黑客攻击的测量设备无关量子密钥分发,创造了量子密钥分发和量子通信的世界最远传输纪录。“针对量子黑客的攻击,我们积极改进现实系统,采用了更加符合理论要求的器件,并通过监测等手段让量子黑客无从下手。”中国科学技术大学张强教授表示,此外,我国也在积极开展高安全性的测量器件无关量子密钥分发工程方案的论证。

319 thoughts on ““量子黑客”来袭,现实环境中的量子通信还安全吗?我国量子战队正在反黑客路上”

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