虚拟现实VR可能会让你更难记住东西

随着现代虚拟现实技术VR从游戏领域迅速进入教育领域,但很少有关于VR如何影响学习成果的研究。日本的一项新研究表明,虚拟现实可能会抑制视觉记忆的有效形成,并且在某些情况下可能导致不良的教育效果。

这项新研究专门针对主动和被动VR之间的视觉记忆保留差异。主动VR是指头戴式显示器(HMD)对主观运动做出响应时,允许用户从不同的视觉角度观察环境。被动观看是指HMD提供单个锁定视图,与用户的头部运动无关。

实验由40个对象组成,在主动和被动观看条件均为20人。每一位受试者都观看了一个在博物馆里拍摄的视频,他们看到了10幅来自彼得·保罗·鲁本斯(Peter Paul Rubens)的绘画,以及10幅来自两位著名巴洛克艺术家尼古拉斯·普辛(Nicolas Poussin)的绘画。两周后,所有受试者都完成了一系列的记忆测试。

有趣的是,虽然观看后立即来自主动和被动组的记忆力测试结果相似,但两周后主动组的记忆力却减弱了,而被动组的记忆力仍然很强。该研究意味着,主动观看VR会在一定程度上降低人形成强烈视觉记忆的能力。

目前尚不清楚这些发现的确切依据,但是,研究人员提出了许多假设来解释。最简单的解释是,主动观看组中的受试者只是花较少的时间观看实际的绘画,因为他们能够选择观看房间中的其他地方。这项研究并没有测量观看这些画的人花了多少时间。

另一个假设是,主动虚拟现实中的增强沉浸感使大脑具有更大的认知负荷,最终抑制了有效的视觉记忆形成。最近一项针对学习过程中认知处理的脑电图研究表明,由于体验的认知负荷,沉浸式虚拟现实体验可能会潜在地抑制学习。

研究人员的下一步将是确切研究主动VR观看如何破坏视觉记忆形成,以及主动3D VR体验是否可以增强某些类型的对象学习(例如雕刻学习或深度感知学习)。

研究人员总结道:“为了更有效地使用HMD,根据当前研究的结果,应该提供VR的特定内容和说明,以帮助学生更正确、更有效地记忆。” “例如,当要存学习记忆某对象时,无论学生的运动如何,都不应更改HMD中的视图。”

资料来源:《心理学前沿》《Active View and Passive View in Virtual Reality Have Different Impacts on Memory and Impression》

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