时至如今量子力学已经诞生100多年,怎么仍未被普及起来?

其实如果要说最适合人类理解的理论其实是亚里士多德时期的理论,因为我们常常看到的就是重的物体先掉下来,很少人会考虑到空气阻力。而牛顿力学,或者说为什么初高中的物理学很多人就受不了,就在于反常识。但是,最起码牛顿力学适用的范围还在宏观世界,也就是人类视力可达的一个世界,我们还能够理解。

物理理论研究要紧跟科学技术的步伐,不断创新。例如美国人在实验室里发现的金属态氢离子,就是爱因斯坦寻找的“隐变量”。

量子力学必须研究金属态氢离子的性质,回答物质的构成及电与磁的关系。

量子力学是研究量子层面物质的运动规律,由于基础粒子十分微小,研究其运动规律就十分艰难,拿原子模型来说,目前还只能构建一个较为简单的模型,核外电子的运动方式用概率描述,电子云是核外电子运动不同时刻的位置,但却不知道它们何时何刻会出现在哪个地方。

1900年,普朗克首先敲开了量子的大门,给出了量子的概念。到了上世纪二三十年代,量子力学比较完善的建立了起来。今天我们能够享受着信息时代给我们带来的各种便利,离不开以量子力学为基础的半导体物理、凝聚态物理等的发展。可是今天你问别人理解量子力学吗?绝大多数人都没有接受过量子力学方面的学习,即使在大学校园里也只有物理系及部分相关专业会在本科阶段学到量子力学的基础内容。甚至有不少人是从奸商或神棍那里听到一些量子概念的,像量子茶杯、量子鞋垫、量子阅读等。量子力学就在我们身边,但也离我们非常遥远,似乎处在附近和遥远的叠加态中。

量子力学为什么得不到普及呢?量子力学对大部分人来说的确是晦涩难懂的,一个个的符号,一个个反常识的认识就能让人摸不清头脑。玻尔曾说过,如果一个人在学习量子力学时若是不感到困惑,说明他没学会。费曼更是直言无人能懂量子力学。科学大腕都觉得量子力学不好学,更何况咱这样的吃瓜群众了。

另外,对于绝大多数人来说可能一辈子也不需要认识薛定谔方程。人各有分工,现在的物理学家都不可能做到熟悉物理学的各个分支,一个普通人又何以能够做到会写薛定谔方程?事实上我们还可以将标准放得更低一些,去问一下走到工作岗位上的人,问他们还记得牛顿三定律吗?真的会有一大批人连牛顿三定律都不能准确表述出来。连三百多年前的牛顿力学都没有做到普及,更别奢望能够普及量子力学了。

可以说,如果缺乏较高的数学能力,学习量子力学连入门都不行。即使会数学推导,但也不见得你就能学懂。世面上所谓的量子力学的科普书,其实都是把概念简化了,娱乐化了。真实的量子力学,很艰涩,而太高深的东西,读者看不懂。而且,很多作者自己也只是接触到皮毛,未必就弄懂这门学科。科普作者都是半桶水,那些读者就更加不能弄懂了,这又怎么“普及”开来?

349 thoughts on “时至如今量子力学已经诞生100多年,怎么仍未被普及起来?”

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