微软推出开源自动驾驶仿真平台 AirSim 教程,机器学习新手也能快速上手自动驾驶

AirSim 是微软推出的开源项目,用于测试人工智能系统的安全性,该系统提供仿真的环境、车辆动力和感知能力,促进无人驾驶技术的发展。近期,微软的工程师推出了一套 AirSim 官方教程,旨在让专家、研究者以及自动驾驶领域的新手们快速掌握开发自动驾驶的基本技能。

在这套教程里,你将会学到如何用从 AirSim 仿真环境搜集到的数据集来训练和测试用于自动驾驶的端对端深度学习模型。你的训练模型将会在 AirSim 的仿真地形中学会如何驾驶汽车,输入的视觉数据只来自一个设置在车前的摄像头。这套课程常被当作自动驾驶的入门项目,不过学完整套课程后, 你会有能力实现你自己的想法。

教程结构

教程里的代码都是在 Keras 中实现的,Keras 是一种可以运行在 CNTK、TensorFlow 或者 Theano 之上的深度学习 Python API。Keras 简单易用,是新手们的不二选择,能够削减大多数流行框架学习的难度。

这个教程会用 Python notebooks 的形式展现。Python notebooks 可以让你非常容易地阅读指导和说明,并且在一个文件中编写和运行代码,所有这一切都可以在浏览器窗口中完成。你可以按顺序浏览以下 notebooks:

  • DataExplorationAndPreparation
  • TrainModel
  • TestModel

如果你之前从没有用过 Python notebooks,我们强烈推荐该教学文档:http://jupyter-notebook-beginner-guide.readthedocs.io/en/latest/what_is_jupyter.html


安装

首先,你要了解基础的人工神经网络知识,不过高阶的概念就不需要了,比如 LSTM 或者强化学习。但是你应该要知道卷积网络的工作原理。Michael Nielsen 写的这本「神经网络和深度学习」非常不错,可在网上免费获取,它能够让你在一周之内构建坚实的神经网络知识基础。

同时,你还要会 Python,至少能够阅读和理解 Python 代码。


安装过程:

  • 安装 AirSim
  • 在 Python 3.5 或者更高的版本里安装 Anaconda
  • 安装 CNTK 或者安装 TensorFlow
  • 安装 h5py
  • 安装 Keras
  • 将 Keras 后端设置为适配 TensorFlow(默认)或者 CNTK


硬件配置

强烈建议用 GPU 来跑程序,虽说用 CPU 也能训练模型,但 CPU 要花数天才能完成训练。该教程用的是一块 GTX970 GPU,只需要 45 分钟就能完成训练。

如果你没有可用的 GPU,你可以用 Azure 上的深度学习虚拟机,它安装之后会提供所有的依赖和库(此虚拟机需要 py35 环境)。

数据集

模型需要大量的数据集来训练,你可以在这里下载。第一个 notebook 会告诉你下载完成后如何获取这些数据。数据集最终解压后大小大概为 3.25 GB,虽说训练一辆真正的自动驾驶汽车需要 PB 级的数据,不过这些数据足够该教程的使用。

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