卢森堡的太空淘金热

卢森堡除了提供资金援助外,更推动法规鼓励太空採矿。该国希望吸引有志于太空探索的创业家与新创公司进驻,一跃成为太空採矿產业的全球重镇。

Now Luxembourg is looking to the skies again, as it hopes to be the global leader in the nascent race to mine resources in outer space.

财经媒体CNBC报导,欧洲小国卢森堡于1980年代曾经主导卫星通讯產业发展,如今再度将目标瞄准太空。卢森堡相中的是数兆美元规模的「太空淘金」產业,不仅提供研发资金,还立下法源基础,试图成为太空採矿领域的重镇。

前往小行星採矿过去是科幻小说的情节,如今则可称作是「21世纪最新淘金热」。外太空星球的资源无穷,近地小行星更是太空企业锁定的主要目标。原因是这些行星含有丰富金属矿產以及用来制作太空燃料的水资源。

太空採矿领域的龙头企业有2家,分别是美国加州山景城(Mountain View)的深空工业(Deep Space Industries)与位于华盛顿州雷德蒙德市(Redmond)的行星资源公司(Planetary Resources)。这2家公司皆获得卢森堡政府挹注重金投资。

2025年可望挖掘成功

这2间公司皆预测,最快在2025年时,他们便能在小行星成功挖掘、处理并取用水、氧气、氢气与贵金属等资源。

根据高盛银行(Goldman Sachs)去年研究报告指出,小行星採矿的概念「比想像中更实际」。比方说,若在小行星挖掘到一个足球场空间大小的铂金,市价便高达250亿至500亿美元。

新一代的太空探索与过去大不相同,不再像「阿波罗计画」那般由政府所支持,而是由盈利导向的民间企业带动。而这正是卢森堡政府相中的契机,该国希望藉由吸引对太空有投资意愿的创业家与新创公司进驻,一跃成为太空採矿產业的全球重镇。

卢森堡于2016年推出「太空资源计画」(Space Resources initiative),提拨约2.23亿美元的国家太空预算,目的在于扶植并补助有志于从事太空採矿的企业。

卢森堡副总理兼经济部长施奈德(Etienne Schneider)表示:「我们的目标是建立太空挖矿的制度,并推动小行星、月球等天体的资源商业化使用。」

除了提供资金援助外,卢森堡政府更努力推动法规鼓励太空採矿。该国于2017年立法允许民间公司持有在小行星开採的任何矿產,成为首个通过此法的欧洲国家。

事实上,美国在2015年便通过《美国商业太空发射竞争法案》(Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act),此法赋予美国公民与企业获取太空资源的权利。但卢森堡的太空法案较为宽松,只要设址于该国的企业便可适用。

市场规模达数兆美元

民间太空探索行业是个崭新市场、商机可期,市场规模预估可达到数兆美元。根据美国联邦航空总署(FAA)预估,太空观光產业在未来几年内的產值可望达到10亿美元。

而知名天文学家泰森(Neil de Grasse Tyson)亦指出,懂得利用挖掘行星矿產资源致富的人,将成为全球首位身家上兆美元的富豪。

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